There is ceserver which can be downloaded (compiled for x64) from the CE github
. The server merely needs to be made executable and run via root.
Then you would need a client to interact with the server. Your best choice is to install and run Cheat Engine for Windows via wine. When trying to open a process, you'll notice that there won't be many entries - what you'll want to do when looking at the process list, is click on the "Network" button and then on "connect" (when leaving the "Host" entry empty it assumes "localhost").
Now you can see all the processes on your system... From there on it's pretty much the same as when using it on Windows (except that it's quite a bit slower).
I'm still hoping that one of the Linux alternatives to CE will at some point have comparable functionality (or that CE will get a real Linux release), but until then, this seems to be the best way...